The general view of majority of western jurists on Human Rights is that Human Rights is the idea of our times. But this idea is generally wrong. It is an idea which took a positive shape fourteen hundred years earlier by Islamic law. Islam being the religion of nature embodies the entire all the basic ideas of Human Rights. Human Rights in Islam is a divine concept unlike the western and contemporary concept of Human Rights, Human Rights in Islam was not the result of any development in human thought. It was the divine arrangement and divine guidance and this guidance was completed with the revelation of the Quran. The sources of Human Rights in Islam is;
The Holy Quran.
Sunnah or traditions: are the first sources of Islamic law.
The second source of Islamic law is Ijma that is consensus of Muslims(Scholars) on an issue. The third source of Islamic law is reasoning by analog or concluding from a principle embodied in a precedent (Qiyas). In fact, Islam promoted the Universality of Human Experience over 1400 years before the United Nations declared it to exist.
In this regards Professor Briffault rightly remarks
“The ideals of freedom for all human beings of human brotherhood of equality of all men before the law of democratic government by consultation and universal suffrage, the ideals that inspired the French revolution and the declaration of rights that guided the framing of American constitution and inflamed the struggle for independence in the Latin American countries were not inventions of the west. They find their ultimate inspiration and source in the Holy Quran. They are the quintessence of what the intelligentsia of medieval Europe acquired from Islam over a period of centuries through the various channels of Muslim in Spain. Sicily the crusaders and of the ideals propagated by the various societies that developed in Europe in the wake of the crusades intimidation of the brotherhood association of Islam”
“The scope of the Human Rights is widened to cover all their religio-cultural and socio-legal manifestation witnessed by human world, in all its parts and in various periods of its history, one will have to admit that Human Rights are of neither a recent nor a western origin and that their origin and initial growth in fact lay elsewhere. So far as the religion of Islam is concerned, it was virtually and in it’s entirely a Human Rights revolution, a movement directed against the stark inhumanity.
If one thinks as of Human Rights, then Islamic pioneering contribution to the inception and growth of Human Rights has to be duly acknowledged. Islamic initiative and role in evolving respectable Human Rights jurisprudence cannot be denied but greatly appreciated”.
What needs to be pointed out to those who uphold Universal Declaration of Human Rights to be the sole and highest charter of equality and liberty, is that given the western origin.
- HUMAN RIGHTS IN ISLAM:
Islam is an Arabic word, derived from a root which means “Peace” and “Submission”. It connotes the attainment of peace through submission to Allah. The most remarkable attribute of Islam is its universality and the place that it assigns to man as the center of the universe. Thus Islam is a term used in reference to the way of life. The word Islam or Muslim are derived from the same Arabic roots “Slm” – which mean Peace, Security, integrity, etc.
The concept of Human Rights is as mature as human history itself but the first practical and audacious step was made by Islam in 7th century A.D. (10th AH). Islam bestows importance to Human Rights due to human honor and dignity.
Due to various different schools of thoughts the scholars define the Human Rights in different ways. Some important definitions are as follows:
According to renowned Muslim Scholar Abdul Hakeem,
“General Human Rights are collective rights. Any power do not ban or stop them, but their perception is different in different areas. So there is deficiency to define then”
According to Scholars of Social Sciences the English word, ‘Right’ and Arabic word ‘Haq’ has multifold meaning and in specific sense denotes the meaning of ‘compulsory’ ‘free from error’ or ‘immediately’.
A Renowned Islamic jurist Dr. Hassan Karrah defines right in Islam as:
“Right as the legal bond under which the authorized person, for monopolizing and his exclusive command on something or a specific requirement of another person.”
Dr. Tahir-ul-Qadri delineates the Human Rights as;
“The Human Rights are those Rights which are given by the creator (Allah) of the humanity through His messengers. These rights are immutable but have reciprocal relationship to the duties.”
In Islamic passage Human Rights are equally provided to every person because there is no Aristocracy in Islam.
Since Allah is the absolute and the sole master of the men and universe and he has given each man human dignity and honor, man has been given the power to be the architect of his own destiny, it follows that men are essentially the same.
All creatures are equal. The foundation of the social system of Islam rests on the idea that all human beings are equal and belong to one universal brotherhood. It announces or annunciates that all men in the world have sprang from the same parents (Adam and Eve) – and therefore are equal in their status as human beings. Islam rejects al distinctions of birth, class, race, color and language.
According to Islam, mankind belonged to a single tribe and single life pattern.
“Mankind was single nation, but differed later”.
In Islam, Human Rights are granted by Allah, not by kings or legislative assemblies and therefore can never be taken away or changed, even temporarily, for any reason. They are meant to be put into practice and lived not to stay on paper.
The Quran states that those who do not judge by what Allah has sent down are the disbelievers.
The extinction of race consciousness as between Muslims is one of the outstanding achievements of Islam, and in the contemporary world there is, as it happens, a crying need for the propagation of this Islamic virtue”.
The Quran states that,
“O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise each other) verily the most honored of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you.”
The Quran states that;
“All human being are one and the same by birth. ultimately everyone can trace his origin to the same man and women as father and mother. It is therefore necessary that all human beings would have a feeling of affinity with each other and live with fairness and goodness like the members of one extended family.”
Quran is the Magna Carta of Human Rights and a large part of its concern is to free human beings from the bondage of traditionalism, authoritarianism (religious, political, economic, or any other), tribalism racism, sexism, slavery or anything else that prohibits or inhibits human beings from actualizing the Quranic vision of human destiny embodied in the classic proclamation.
The concept of Human Rights being originally vested in the Almighty is clearly illustrated by the Prophet (PBUH) in the following Hadith in which the Prophet (PBUH) said that Allah will ask human beings on the Day of Judgment.
“O children of Adam! I asked food from you but you did not feed me.” The man will reply, “Allah how could I feed you when you are sustainer of all men”. Allah will say such and such of my servant asked you for food but you did not feed him. Do you not know that if you have given him food you would have found that food here with me? And O children of Adam, I asked water from you and you did not give it to me “Man will say” O Allah, how could I give you water when you are the lord of worlds”, Allah will say, “such and such of my servants asked you for water but you did not oblige him. If you had given water you would have found it here with me.”
The above mentioned Hadith highlights another important aspect of the validity of Human Rights in Islam. The sanctity accord to Human Rights is much more than that of the rituals of worship.
If a man does not fulfill his duties towards Allah he is likely to be forgiven for this but not so in case of non-fulfillment of the duties towards human beings.
The purpose of the state in Islam is itself the restoration of these rights to those who been deprived of them.
Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) explained this concept in the following words on the occasion of his election as the first caliph of the Islamic state in Madina.
“The weak shall be strong in my eyes unless restore to them their lost rights and strong shall be weak in my eyes until I have restored the rights of the weak from them.”
It has been rightly quoted by Ignatieff;
“Human Rights are justified based on some form of religious foundation. According to him, without a religious view of Human Rights there is no reason why human beings are “entitled to” ultimate respect.”
Bernared Lewis says,
“Islam – the offspring of Arabic and the Arabian Prophet (PBUH) was not only a system of belief and cut. It was also a system of state, society, law, thought and art, a civilization with religion as its unifying, eventually dominating factor. Its code was shariah, the holy law developed by jurists from the Quran and traditions of the Prophet (PBUH). The shariah was not only a normative code of law but also, in its social and political aspects, a pattern of conduct, an ideal towards which men and society must strive.”
Human Rights in Islam are honor, privilege, appendage, which is granted, conferred by Allah because the sovereignty not only of the state but the entire universe rests with him.
Islam has attached special sanctity to human life. Human blood is sacred in any case and cannot be spelled without justification and if any one violates this sanctity of human blood by killing a soul without justification the Quran equates it to the killing of entire mankind.
“Who so slays a soul not to retaliate for a soul slain, nor for corruption done in the land, should be as if he had slain mankind altogether.”
“Whoever saved a human life shall be regarded as having saved all mankind”.
Similarly it is not permissible to oppress women, children, old people, the sick or the wounded. women’s honor and chastity are to be respected under all circumstances. The hungry must be fed, the naked clothed, and the wounded or diseased given medical treatment regardless of their pro – or anti-Muslim sentiments and activities.
Another instance of Islam’s love for humanity is that it has seriously condemned those who cater to be in pride. A tradition of the Prophet (PBUH) says:
“No man who has in his heart a mustard grains weight of pride will ever enter paradise, and no man who has in his heart a mustard grains weight of faith will ever enter hell”.
There is ample evidence in the Quran to prove that the Islam is basically individualistic in contents.
Islam has formulated various laws by which it can be humanized. The Quran says,
“If they lean to peace, then lean, thou also to it”.
The best way to avoid international frictions to resolve differences among nations throughout treaties and diplomacy. The Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W.) himself sets on example in this matter by making important treaties. His first treaty was with the tribes of Madina.
The Quran Mentions about prisoners of wars
“And Afterwards either set them free as a favor or let them ransom (themselves) until the war lays down its weapons.”
This verse leaves no rooms for the doubt that Islam enjoins upon conquerors to be humane to the prisoners and would prefer that they be freed rather than be kept in captivity.
H.A.R. Gibb says,
“Islam emerged into the civilized outer world, not as the crude superstition of marauding hordes, but as a moral force that commanded respect and a coherent doctrine that could challenge on their own ground the Christianity of East Rome and the Zoroastrianism of Persia.”
HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS OF HUMAN RIGHTS
1.2 THE CONSTITUTION OF ISLAMIC STATE OF MADINA – THE FIRST WRITTEN CONSTITUTION OF HUMAN HISTORY:
The Holy book of Islam – the Quran says,
“God commands justice, kindness and giving their (due to) near relatives, and he forbids all shameful deeds and injustice and transgression. He admonishes you so that you may take heed.”
Mohammad – the final Prophet (PBUH) of Islam established the very first Islamic society which eliminated the spiritual and social problems uncontrolled in the Peninsula of Arabic.
The most significant characteristics of the very first Islamic society were:
- Constitutional subjects of the state: This shall be a pact between the Muslim of Quraish, the people of Yaturib (the citizens of Madina) and those who follow them and become politically attached to them and fight along with them all these communities shall be the constitutional subjects of the state.
- Right of Political and Static Identity.
- Right to continue just laws.
- Right of equality in obedience of law.
- Right of equality in obedience of law.
- Right of economic support.
- Right of protection from unjust favoritism.
- Right of life.
- Distinctive identity of Muslim against other constitutional communities.
- Non-Muslim minorities have the same right of life protection (like Muslims).
- Right of Security and Guarantee of Peace.
- Law of relief for ware allies Right of relaxation in defense responsibilities.
- Right to retaliate the bloodshed.
- Right of state security on abiding state law.
- Prohibition of conspiracy against Islamic state.
- Prohibition of violating law.
- Right of representation in state defense – the non-Muslim will be subjected to a proportionate liability to the war expenses along with the believers so long as they continue to fight in conjunction with them.
- Right of religious freedom.
- Equality in Rights.
- Equal enforcement of law.
- Responsibility of unlawful killing.
- Involvement of all communities in state defense.
- Right of mutual consultation and honorable dealing in state matters.
- Right of justice for oppressed.
- Right of protection from mutual warfare.
- Right of protection of women.
- Right of state defense – the Muslims and the non-Muslims shall be jointly responsible to defend the Islamic state of Madina against any outside attack.
- Observance of treaty of peace for every ally.
- Observance of international treaties.
- Rights of constitutional equality.
The Prophet (PBUH) formed His Islamic state in Madina on the basis of firm and fair democratic principles and universal valves.
At a time when there was no conception of human right organizations, the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) ensured full liberty, rights and decent privileges to adherents to other faiths.
1.3 THE HOLY PROPHET (PBUH)S ADDRESS ON THE CONQUEST OF MAKKAH:
The most significant features of the holy Prophet (PBUH)’s Address on the conquests of Makkah are;
As a matter of fact, the teachings and entire life of Prophet (PBUH) are based on universal harmonious valves of mercy, compassion, forgiveness and general Amnesty, this is clearly evident at the conquest of Makkah (Fath-e-Makkah) when the Prophet (PBUH) granted general amnesty for even his avowed and intense enemies, the pagans of Makkah who attacked, oppressed mocked and tortured him for years. This even happened on 10th of Ramadhan (11 Jan 630 AD).
Just after the Prophet (PBUH) achieved the crowning victory over Makkah, he proclaimed, general amnesty without the least emotion for retaliation.
Some of his companions, overjoyed with triumph and zeal, spoke out: “Al-Yumu Yumul Malhamah” – (today is the day of retaliation) but the Prophet (PBUH) strongly negated it and said;
“La al-Yumu Yamul Marhamah” (No, today is the day of Pardon and forgiveness).
After the victory over Makkah the enemies wondered if the Prophet (PBUH) would kill them all in retaliation as the conquerors did in the pre-Islamic Arabia. Having felt their unrest the Prophet (PBUH) asked them.
“O people of Quraish! What do you think I will do to you? Aware of the Prophet (PBUH)s mercifulness and nobility, they said in one unison:” you will do good to us, because you are noble.
The Prophet of peace (PBUH) granted general Amnesty and openly announced;
“Go back your homes! You are all free”
Umm Hakim, Ikramih’s wife, went to the camp of Prophet (PBUH) and pleaded for his forgiveness, the Prophet (PBUH) immediately forgave him and promised his safety. Umm Hakim then came up to Ikramah and said:
“I have come to you from the most generous of men, the most righteous of men and the best of men from Mohammad bin Abdullah. I have asked for an amnesty for you and he has granted it, so do not destroy yourself.”
When Ikramah appeared before Mohammad (PBUH), he said to him;
“O Muhammad, if you think that I have also converted to Islam because of your forgiveness, then let it be clear that I have not become a Muslim. It would be fine if you could forgive me while I remain stead fast on my own faith, otherwise I leave,”
The Prophet (PBUH) replied: indeed, you can remain on your faith you are free in every way.
The Prophet (PBUH) of Islam achieved the bloodless conquest of Makkah without revenging the most tenacious criminals of Makkah who attacked him, plotted to kill him, stoned him, made his teeth to bleed, cracked his jaw and split open his blessed face, murdered his belonged companions, deformed the dead body of his martyred and very endeared uncle, Hazrat Hamzah, and even eaten his liver with wild rancor.
The other salient declarations, which can be drawn from the holy Prophet`s (PBUH) address on the conquest of Makkah can be summarized as;
- Eradication of Ancestral Superiority.
- Respect for religious Responsibility.
- Declaration of human life Sanctity.
- Declaration of human equality.
- Declaration for dignity.
- Declaration for liberty.
1.4 THE HOLY PROPHET (PBUH) LAST SERMON
THE FIRST EVER HUMAN RIGHTS DECLARATION.
It was 63rd year of the Prophet’s (PBUH) life which coincided with the close of 10th of Hijra, which in history goes by the name of Khutba-e-Hajjatul-Wada.
According to Renowned Islamic Scholar Khalid Aalvi:
“The Prophet (S.A.W.) now wanted to give final instructions to his followers because the end of his life was near, towards the end of the 10th Hijra.”
The sermon of the holy Prophet (PBUH) is not only noticeable for its eloquence but it contains an eye opening message for the whole of the human race. The world has not been able to establish better principles of ethics and morality than those enunciated in it. Every word of it breathes a spirit of brotherhood and humankind – irrespective of the divergences of their geographical, racial and colour backgrounds and provides a figure, outline of a social order, free from injustice and oppression – guaranteeing the Basic Human Rights and Needs for a truly free, and peacefully progressive society.
The last sermon of the holy Prophet (PBUH) is a big remarkable document in human history in the perspective of Human Rights. It has very much significance because the text and language of the sermon is general not specific.
According to Maulana Safi-ur-Rehman;
It was delivered in 632 A.D. /10 A.H. at the last Hajj of the holy Prophet (PBUH).
The last sermon of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) teaches the importance of equality and fair treatment, and laid the outline for the First Human Rights declaration, many hundreds of years before the magna carta, Bill of Rights and UN Human Rights codes.
The important Human Rights of the last sermon are given below:
These Rights has been summarized in this form in the famous book of the “Human Rights in Islam” written by a famous Author Shyakh-ul-Islam Dr. Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri.
- Equality of Human Rights:
“All mankind is from Adam and Eve, and Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has not superiority over black nor, a black has any superiority over white except by piety and good action.”
- Obedience of Rights.
- Right of life:
“O people just as you regard this month, this day, this city as sacred.”
- Eradication of Ethnicism.
- Right to property:
“Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners your capital, however is yours to keep.”
- Right of society members:
“O people, every Muslim are the brother of the other Muslim, and all the Muslims form one brotherhood.”
- Right of workers and servants:
“And your slaves I see that you feed them with such food as you eat your selves, and clothe them with the same clothes that you, your selves wear.”
- Eradication of lawlessness:
“Behold! All practices of the days of ignorance are now under my feet. The blood revenges of the days of ignorance are remitted.”
- Economic Rights:
“All interests and usurious dues accruing from time to time of ignorance stand wiped out.”
- Right of inheritance:
“O people, Allah, the mighty and Exalted has ordained to everyone his due share (of inheritance). Hence there is no need of special testament for and heir (departing from the rules laid down by shariah).
- Newborns Right of Ancestral Sanctity:
“The child belongs to the marriage – bed and violator of wed lock shall be stoned and reckoning of their deeds rests with Allah.”
- Right of Social Identity:
“He who attributes this ancestry to other than his father claims his client ship to other them his master, the curse of Allah is upon him.
- Rights to receive the debt:
“All debts must be repaid, all borrowed property must be returned, gifts should be reciprocated and a surety must make good the loss to the assured.”
- Right of ownership:
“He who (amongst you) has any trust with him, he must return it to the owner.”
- Women’s Right want of husbands and wives:
“O people, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you, remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah’s trust and with his permission. If they abide by your rights then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness.
Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not allow anyone to enter your house whom you do not approve of as well as never to be unchaste.”
- Constitutional Rights:
“Verify I have left amongst you that which will never head you astray, the book of Allah and my example, the sunnah and if you follow these you will never go astray.”
- Rights of State:
“Behold! Worship you lord; and obey your rulers, and you will be admitted to the paradise of your lord.”
- Right of law observance.
- Rights of justice:
“Beware, no one committing a crime a responsible for it but himself, neither the child is responsible for the crime of his father’s nor the father is responsible for the crime of his child.”
- Right of Awareness for future generations:
“Let him that who is present, convey it unto him who is absent, for many people to whom the message is conveyed may be more mindful of it than the audience.”
The Farewell address is equally notable for the universal message it has for mankind as a whole.
- There is the great stress on the priceless worth of human life without taking of human life cannot be tolerated and must be punishable by death.
Even of the life is taken by mistake. The Diyah” (blood ransom or compensation) must be paid to the relatives of the killed person.
Islam has accorded such a high value to human life that it declared that whoever kills one man deliberately, it is as if he has killed all of mankind.
- The farewell address stressed the need and concern that women be treated kindly and compassionately. Divorce, while permissible as a last resort in Islam, must be avoided if at all possible of all the permitted acts. It is the most hated by Allah.
In this way, the Human Rights of the last sermon are more ancient than the UDHR by 1309 years. So the last sermon of the holy Prophet (PBUH) is the first universal character of Human Rights in the world.
According to the Islamic teachings and Muslim Scholars Point of view the last sermon of the Prophet (PBUH) is a complete code of Human Rights forever.
As Dr. Sultan said in his book;
After these facts, we can say that the last sermon of the Prophet (PBUH) is a comprehensive and complete charter of Human Rights.”
The Quranic ideology judged by any standard of logic, rationality and morality is progressive and those who believe in it do not have to search for the solution of human problems somewhere else.
This is the brief summary of those rights which 1400 years ago Islam gave to man. Even in the present so-called modern period which makes such loud claims of progress and enlightment, the world has not been able to produce more just and equitable laws than those given 1400 years ago.
The characteristics of Human Rights in Islamic law are as:
- According to Islamic jurisprudence Human Rights are divine. These do not stem from other human beings who are influenced by whims, desires, interests and personal ambitions.
- Human Rights are associated, linked, corrected with the Islamic faith and belief.
- These Human Rights are comprehensive to the human beings nature.
- These Human Rights are applicable to each person under Islamic jurisprudence, regardless of color, race, religion, language or social status.
- These are constant and are not adaptable at any time or place and under any condition or circumstances. Neither society nor individuals can alter these Human Rights.
- These are sufficient to establish a society that grants its life. These Human Rights also serve to preserve political, social, moral and economic rights of humanity.
- These Human Rights, however, are restricted and not absolute.
When we look into the matter of Human Rights the contribution of Islam in this field has far reaching impact throughout the world in the protection and promotion of Human Rights; before 1400 years ago, Islamic appeal for Human Rights and fundamental freedoms was heard, and it was able to prove its worth and effectiveness and it was addressed to all human beings without distinction as to race, sex, creed or color.
Islamic jurist has said;
“To the students of the Quran not one word in the preamble or in the objectives of the character and not a single article in the text of universal declaration of Human Rights will seem unfamiliar.”
Human Rights in Islam are based on the premise that man acts as the representative of Allah on the earth.
An Eminent Muslim jurist quotes De Santillana to have said:
“We may agree with the Muslim jurists when they teach that the fundamental rule of law is liberty. God has set a ‘bound to human activity in order to make legitimate liberty possible for all, without the ‘bounds of God liberty would degenerate into license, destroying the perpetrator himself along with the social fabric. This bound is precisely. What is called law which restrains human action within certain limits, forbidding certain acts and enjoining others, and thus, restraining the primitive liberty of man, so as to make it as beneficial as possible either to the individual or to society.”
According to the Dr. Mohammad Hamad Khadar;
“Rights are not an end themselves, they are simply a means to fulfill the duties of life.”
The Islamic rights are relevant to duties. It means if you have some rights than you have also some duties. If you violate these duties then you have not any right to Rights. It shows that the Islamic concept of Human Rights has belonged to duties and rights for a peaceful society.
According to sufficient reasons, the Human Rights in Islam are more universal, deeper more secured and more guaranteed.
Islam presented the complete concept of Human Rights at such a time when there was no found any concept of Human Rights in the society.
Islam emancipated the poor and oppressed and gave the world the basic prescription for the respect and value of all human beings irrespective of class, colour, or creed.
Those instructions contained in the holy Quran remain as relevant today as they were at the time that it was revealed.
Thus, it can conclude with air of finality that Human Rights are not at all a foreign concept for the Muslims of the contemporary world, their religion at its very inception spoke of them. The holy Quran, Sunnah of Prophet (PBUH) and books of fiqh, all dwelt on them at length. In any case, the west cannot claim a monopoly on or an exclusive claim to the initiation development, formalization, adoption and practice of Human Rights.
Furthermore, if we keenly observe the present Human Rights we find that these are the re-voice of those rights which Islam has provided 1400 years ago. It means modern Human Rights are not new but these are revision of those which Islam has already provided.
Islam gives a lot of Human Rights but most of them are unknown for us, in fact due to the ignorance about these rights and lack of proper knowledge about them, the reputation of Islam is distorted in the eyes of the rest of the world.
So, the present Muslim leaders should maintain the present momentum of Islam revival and mobilize the resource of their leadership to be a truly representatives of the original spirit of Islam.
The journey of development and improvement of humanity is caring on in a very fast way but the status of Human Rights is going to fail with passage of time also very fast. If we want to true performance of Human Rights of peaceful and humble society then we should obey the divine rules in every sphere of life.
It needs to be shown that Islamic teachings are not inimical to human progress, and that Islam is second to none in enhancing the dignity of man, and in securing for him the rights to achieve for him the rights to achieve the maximum self-actualization of his potentialities. The best way to do so it to set, and example about the practicality of the Islamic principles.
Another area in which rejuvenation will make islamic ideology a successful competitor in the world of competing ideologies is popular participation in the political decision making.
The main thrust should be to restore Human Rights to their due place in the socio-political organization of a Muslim community.
The two cardinal principles of Islam i.e. IJTIHAD & IJMA can made the ideological boundaries of Islam broad and flexible so that it could accommodate the changing realities of life without transmuting the fundamental beliefs or distorting the supreme moral and spiritual ideals of faith.
Unless the Muslim revert back to independent reasoning and reopen the doors of ijtihad, Islam will not be able to meet the gruesome challenges of modern times.
Advocate syed mujtaba hussain
B.A. LL.B, LLM, (HR/INT. Law), M.A (pub adm).
Advocate Syed Mujtaba Hussian hails from Kashmir is a research student of law and can be reached at email@example.com.